The Black Hole – Einstein’s Theory Proved

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By admin April 12, 2019 17:17

For the first time, we the Earth citizens have seen an actual image of a black hole.

The image is taken by the Event Horizon Telescope project.

It shows the event horizon of the supermassive black hole at the centre of the M87 galaxy.

✓ The picture depicts an orange ring circling the dark shadow of a black hole.

✓ It is 55 million light-years away at the centre of a galaxy known as Virgo A (Messier 87).

✓ Its mass is 6.5 billion times that of Earth’s sun.

What is a black hole?

✓ A black hole is a region of space-time that has a strong gravitational pull and light that can easily escape from inside it.

✓ The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible, this is known as an event horizon.

A black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light.

✓ It also emits Hawking radiation.

When a massive star dies, it leaves behind a dense core.

If this core is over three times as massive as the sun, his equations showed that the force

of gravity produced a black hole.

✓ The high gravitational force of the black hole superheats the gas, causing it to glow.

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Where is the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)?

✓ It is a large telescope array consisting of a global network of radio telescopes around the Earth. The aim of the EHT project is to observe the immediate environment of supermassive black holes, Sagittarius A* at the centre of the Milky Way and larger black hole Messier 87.

These telescopes are located at high-altitude sites such as volcanoes in Hawaii and Mexico, mountains in Arizona and the Spanish Sierra Nevada, the Atacama Desert and Antarctica.

✓ These telescopes have used the technique that is very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI).

✓ The resolution of the Event Horizon Telescope is about 20 microarcseconds.

How did the image confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity?

✓ The theory posits that black holes exist.

✓ Relativity predicts a dark shadow-like region, caused by gravitational bending and capture of light, which matches the observed image.

✓ The theory describes gravity as a consequence of the warping of space-time.

✓ Massive objects create a sort of well in space, into which passing bodies fall.

✓ Each of these black holes has an event horizon — a point beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape.

✓ General relativity predicts that massive, accelerating objects generate ripples in space-time called gravitational waves.

✓ Gravitational waves were confirmed by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO).

✓ LIGO detected the ripples which are created by a merger between two black holes.

✓ The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory in the USA to detect cosmic gravitational waves.

How scientists took the photo?

Scientists combined all these raw measurements from different telescopes and combined them into the image.

Why did scientists use radio waves rather than visible light?

✓ Radio waves have the highest angular resolution.

✓ Angular resolution is the smallest angle a telescope can view between two separate objects.

✓It is a computer generated image not an original picture

What are Radio waves?

✓ These are electromagnetic radiation.

✓ They have wavelengths longer than infrared light.

✓ Radio waves have frequencies from 300 gigahertz to 30 Hertz.

✓ Their Minimum wavelength is 1 mm, and the maximum is 10,000 km.

✓ Visible light’s wavelength is from 400 nanometers (4 x 10 -7 m, violet) to 700 nm (7 x10-7m, red).

 

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admin
By admin April 12, 2019 17:17